Kidney stones are also called renal calculi or renal lithiasis or
disease is among the most painful and prevalent urological
disorders. Millions of kidney stone cases are diagnosed each year.
Most of the kidney
stones pass out of the body spontaneously, these kidney stones are
usually less than 5mm. in size.
contains many dissolved substances, but sometimes some material
may become concentrated in the urine and form solid
These crystals can grow and unite to form Kidney Stone. Ureteral
Stone is a kidney stone which has moved from Kidney to the Ureter.
There are numerous
factors which lead to the formation of kidney stones. High intake
of non-vegetarian food, high salt diet & low water intake are some
the important factors which may lead to the formation of kidney
There are several
types of kidney stones, majority of them are calcium oxalate
kidney stones followed by calcium phosphate kidney stones. A less
common type of kidney stone is caused by infection in the urinary
tract. This type of kidney stone is called a struvite or infection
stone. Another type of less
common kidney stone is uric acid
kidney stone followed by several rare types of kidney stones
The most common symptoms of kidney stone include severe pain in
the back radiating to the front, nausea, vomiting, blood in urine
& difficulty in passing
urine. Occasionally kidney stones may be
painless or silent. These silent kidney stones may cause
irreversible damage to the kidney.
Kidney Stone may be diagnosed by X-ray KUB, ultrasound, IVP
(Intravenous Pyelogram), NCCT-KUB/CT Urography.
Kidney and Ureteral Stones may be treated by:
RIRS ( Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery )
ESWL ( Extracorporial Shock Wave Lithotripsy )
URS ( Ureteroscopy )
( Pecutaneous Nephrolithotomy )
Kidney Stones may be prevented by taking plenty of fluids, low
salt diet & by avoiding non-vegetarian food.
Recurrence of Kidney stone is very common approaching 50% in 10
years, however it can be reduced by taking preventive measures.